The Wars of Israel

The people of Ancient Israel experienced wars and persecutions from the first time ancient Israel was founded by Avraham. The land was conquered and ruled by so many different kingdoms, tribes, and enemies that you easily can lose track of it. To have an idea, of the long list of nations trying to rule over Eretz Israel some names:
Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, Greece, Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, Caliphates, Crusades, Mamluks, Ottomans, Brits.92559983_2742140369232510_1937153176754978816_n

Of course, due to so many wars, the people of Israel were spread among the world, in the Diaspora, and even there the life of the Jews, the Israelite’s, was full of hardship and persecutions. The most known and horrendous attempt to eliminate the Jewish people was Hitler’s plan for the ‘final solution’.. the Nazi death camps.

So when after the second World war, the Holocaust survivors returned to the land that was assigned to them under the Balfour declaration, they expected to live in peace in the new land, the modern state of israel, to develop her. Unfortunately the hostile, also relatively newly founded Arab states, like Jordan, Syria, Iraq, didn’t like the Jews to return to their ancient Homeland and started conflict after conflict and war after war.
They created also the “palestinian” – Israeli conflict, in the war of 1948/1949, The Israeli independence war, they called the Arabs living in the land of the new state to leave, so they could thrive the Jews into the sea, massacre them and when that would be finished, the Israeli Arabs could return. (650.000 left, most of them voluntarily) Well, fortunately, the Israelis that have no other land, fought like lions and won. The conflict of the ‘palestinians’ started. Israelis can write a long list of wars against them in the history books:
1948 Independence war, 1956-1960 Reprisal operations, 1956 Suez crisis. 1967 6-days war, 1967-1970 war of attrition, 1973 Yom Kippur war,
1982 the First Lebanon war, 2006 second Lebanon war, In between several intifadas, December 2008- January 2009 first Gaza war, 2012 operation pillar of defense, 2014 operation protective edge, the second Gaza war.

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It is a horrible list of wars and if you think of the pain, trauma, sadness, despair behind these wars, you can not wish anything else than that the people of Israel finally can live in peace, that the dead didn’t fall in vain and the wounded and traumatized didn’t suffer in vain. But i feel also a huge gratitude to the Heroes of Israel, those that were fighting and their commanders that lead their men to victory and saved Eretz Israel.

However, with horror and sadness, I see what is happening in the world again. There is a new war, the war of the worlds, the war against a virus, Covid-19 and instead of unification between the nations of the World, (after all we all fight the same war now), again there are lies spread, hate spread, and who gets all the blame? The Jews. The antisemitism is rising sky high and despite all Israel is contributing to the world, they are the black sheep again. In this time of crisis, another group seeks justice, black people, people that accuse white people of the past of slavery, forgetting that the tribe’s culture of these people started the slavery in the first place and the “white” men only can be accused of trading in people that were captured by their black brothers from another tribe. Horrible and a good cause, but why on earth, the hate is spread to the Jews and the Israelis? Why on earth the “palestinians” that in history were the Jews, who got that name by the Roman empire, that was delegitimizing Israel in that way, are connected to the cause of the movement “Black life Matters” aka BLM?

Hatred to the Jewish people is as ancient as the world, it is horrible and we, modern humanity should make it a priority to finally stop this shameful attitude towards the Jewish people.

I believe and hope we can do this together, but the saddest and unbelievable hate is hate that is spread by Jewish people against Israel, against their fellow Jews that are only longing to live in peace and harmony in their own homeland, the land of Zion and Jerusalem.

It is Time To Stand Up For Israel, It is Time to show the heroes of Israel that they are not alone. The People of Israel are alive and always will be.

Am Yisrael Chai


About The other side Is Real

My name is Sabine Sterk and since I was very young I was a fanatic Israeli supporter. My father worked for the UNTSO and was sent to the Middle East when I was 12 years old. I lived in Syria and Israel and saw from a young age the difference between the cultures… When I returned to the Netherlands I noticed that the Anti Israel sentiment was increasing and I started to fight this. I admire Israel for all the good things that are achieved in the country. I am not religious and my motto is: Israel has the right to exist and Israel has the right to defend herself. As long as I live I will stand up for Israel and speak out on behalf of her. My ultimate dream is to find work in Israel or for Israel… I still hope to Fulfill that dream anytime soon… There is nothing I want more. I am passionate, a true Zionist supporter, enthusiastic, impulsive, impatient, honest but always try to live the best I can.
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3 Responses to The Wars of Israel

  1. mosckerr says:

    Was not much of a fight. Arab stateless refugees fire some 4300 rockets into Israel, and Israel spanked the bottom of Hamas till their nose bled.


  2. mosckerr says:

    Israel’s 3 No’s:
    1. No to any negation of the Israeli victory of the 1967 6 Day War.
    2. No to any surrender of Israeli rule from all of Jerusalem.
    3. No to any 1948 alien Balestinian stateless refugees, much less their descendants, receiving Israeli citizenship.

    Ursula von der Leyen delivered her first State of the Union speech, but she made no mention of the recent peace treaties between UAE and Bahrain with Israel.. The EU talks about the absolute need for trust between member states in that Union, specifically in Eastern Europe. Yet demands the division of Israel in the face of total distrust!!! The EU has a hostile agenda in the Middle East. She said nothing about the vile Turkish continued occupation of Cyprus. The vile hypocrisy that EU rhetoric refers to as the ‘Rule of Law’, also popularly referred to as “international law”, specifically the EU condemnation based upon its evil support of UN/Obama 2334, by which foreign alien Powers declare that they have a mandate to determine the international borders of States in the Middle East.

    After the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel was — in Defense Minister Moshe Dayan’s famous phrase — “waiting for a telephone call” from Arab leaders. At a summit conference in Khartoum, Sudan from August 29 to September 1. There they pledged to continue their struggle against Israel. Influenced by Nasser, their conditions were quite specific: no peace with Israel, no negotiations with Israel, no recognition of Israel.

    Arabs fought and lost wars to throw the Jews into the Sea and complete the Nazi genocide which murdered 75% of all European Jewry in less than 4 years. Germany lost its land grab wars, and got its Capital of Berlin divided. The EU seeks to negate the Israeli victory of 1967. If they can succeed to negate that victory, then what’s to stop them from negating the Israeli 1948 Independence War victory?

    The problem centers not upon Arab rejection of their defeats in war. But rather Arab cowardice to repatriate their Arab refugee populations. Arab countries started both the 1948 and 1967 wars. In 1948, immediately after their defeat, Arab and Muslim states unilaterally expelled all Jews living in their countries. Israel repatriated all of these Jewish refugee populations – some 800,000 people which Arab and Muslim countries unilaterally expelled in their post war hysteria.

    A similar number of Arab stateless refugees fled the newly established Jewish state. To this very day, not a single Arab or Muslim country has agreed to repatriate their stateless Arab refugee populations. This problem the Arab states must address. The Balestinians refer to this problem – through the denial of their refugee status – as their ‘right of return’. Utter nonsense. Jews prior to the 1948 Independence War miracle, we lived as stateless refugee populations – scattered across North Africa, the Middle East, and all of Europe – for over 2000 years. Jewish stateless refugees had no rights. A basic lie, for Balestinians (Arabs can not pronounce the letter P) to declare that they have rights.

    Diplomacy has its windows of opportunity. Prior to the 1948 Israeli Independence War, the UN promoted a 2 State opportunity to Arabs and Jews. After the victory the window permanently slammed shut for any 2 state solution. Immediately after the 1967 June War, Israeli leaders favored land for peace. But with almost 1 million Jews living in Samaria, this window too has permanently slammed shut.

    Yom HaDin judges the neshama, the Name E’l, as in Elul. The Book of שמות dedicates 4 Parshaot to the vessels of the Mishkan and garments. Two Parshaot prior to the sin of the Golden Calf and two Parshaot there after, which close the Book of שמות. An object casts its shadow. This idea explains סוד. A building stands upon a concealed יסוד. This method of scholarship, the opposite of רמז, words contained in other words, בראשית: ברית אש, ראש בית, ב’ ראשית. Herein the 6 letters of בראשית teach the discipline of רמז. The discipline of סוד works in the opposite way, it expands a concealed agenda through other metaphors like, for example יסוד. The foundation upon which a building stands – a סוד concealed from view.

    Check out the opening of 1st Kings. There the Order of king Shlomo’s administrators mentioned in detail. Oral Torah logic works by making “measured” comparisons by which a person can judge the depth of an idea. A blueprint reads by having a front, side, top view of an designed object. Reading a blueprint gives a 3 dimensional view of that designed object, as read from a 2 dimensional blueprint.

    Just looked at some modern commentators who express their fervent belief in the new testament avoda zara. These writers, as a rule, parrot the written words from their Bible translations. They offer no depth analysis of the words which they quote. By stark contrast, rabbi Akiva handed over a kabbala known as פרדס unto his students. The entire works of Mishna and Gemara, both stand upon the יסוד of פרדס scholarship. A thousand years later, Reshon scholarship, debated sh’ittot on how to understand פשט. Scholarship on the Talmud, which lacks a working disciplined knowledge of פרדס, directly compares to Xtianity biblical commentators who quote directly from their bible translations, to preach their son of god noise.

    The Auchron sh’itta which teaches פלפול likewise fails to teach פרדס. The emptiness of this popular Yeshiva learning device … a child learns all week in Yeshiva, his rav teaches the פלפול method of scholarship. That child comes home for shabbot, and at the shabbot dinner table talks about all subjects – other than his learning in the Yeshiva. The problem with פלפול, this splitting of hairs between how one Reshon commentator learns a line of Gemara vs. how another Reshon comments – on that identical Gemara phrase – only a few of the boys actually follow the fission scholarship as taught by their Maggid shiur. Never met a child who possesses the skill to discuss his פלפול learning at the shabbot table!

    If for no other reason than this, this פלפול sh’itta of learning – its just plain wrong. Rabbis treat פרדס, in a similar wrong way – comparable to saying the 13 middot in the month of Elul. During prayers of selichot, Yidden open the doors revealing the Safer Torah within. Over and again Yidden repeat the 13 tohor middot prayer matras. Never once does any Rabbinic authority challenge the folk to discern/understand the distinction between a tohor midda from a tohor midda. How can a person dedicate their דרך ארץ walk before HaShem, if that person never strives to define – from the Torah – tohor middot?!

    Throwing out names of revered authorities, like for example, the Maharal of Prague etc., appeals to authority fails to teach the required kabbala of פרדס, upon which the entire Talmud learns. The concealed common denominator that links the vessels of the Mishkan and garments of the Cohonim, with the appointments of the key Administrative posts made by king Shlomo’s Order of government, [compare and contrast]. This Torah/Prophets depth analysis, what common denominator do they share in common? Both Primary sources omit any and all reference to the establishment of a Federal lateral common law Court system. The basis of Yetro’s mussar given unto Moshe, prior to the revelation of the Torah at Sinai.

    Weigh the blessing within the Shemone Esri:

    ולירושלים עירך ברחמים תשוב ותשכן בתוכה כאשר דברת, ובנה לתוכה תכין: ברוך אתה ה’, בונה ירושלים.
    with the opening set of stories in the first Book of Kings compared to the last four closing Parshaot of the 2nd Book of the Torah, which address the vessels of the Mishkan and the Cohen garments. The k’vanna of these two comparative case studies shares a common root foundation, they both, as stated above, omit the key subject of Federal lateral common law courts.

    Justice through courts of lateral Common Law defines the Good Name of Jerusalem, rather than some grand Temple structure made of wood and stone. The learning of Talmud requires knowledge of rabbi Akiva’s פרדס kabbala. The study of Talmud, פרדס most essentially defines. The רמז\סוד compares to the roots of a tree, ever expanding in search of water and minerals, which the tree requires in order to live. Like the foundation upon which a building stands, so too and how much more so, the roots necessary for classic plant life, excluding mushrooms.

    To understand the halakic component of the Talmud also compares to the grammar of Hebrew verbs. Each and every Hebrew verb has a two or three letter שרש root, upon which Hebrew grammar builds its language. What does the 3 letter verb root compare? To racism. The first word of the Torah, its 6 letters conceals, it hints to a basic רמז of 2 beginnings/ב’ ראשית. Language opposed by actions; racism employs both the slander/perversion of words, together with violent crimes, committed by mass murder psycho-paths, together with their groupy (just following orders) followers.

    The Creation story establishes as its center stage prop, the metaphor of the Tree of Life and the Tree of Good and Evil. The kabbala of this story, most essentially defines Talmud through the tohor and tuma Yatzirot within our hearts. The symbol of life and death, expressed through the tohor and tuma Yatzirot, as expressed in the mitzva of kre’a shma, the Mishna understands that through this mitzva, Yidden have the opportunity to choose the yoke of Fear of Heaven; and live their lives for the purpose of building the reputation of their Good Name.

    The language of this opening Torah story, a world full of chaos and anarchy, contrasts with the Order imposed by the 7 days of Creation. These two opposing powers of conflict, they mirror – they reflect – the two fundamentally opposed forces within Nature – life & death. The eternal conflict between these two opposing great powers, in their own odd manner, equally defines the laws of gravity; they create a magnetic field, which impacts human health.

    The kabbala of rabbi Akiva’s hints to a possible comparison to the basis of physics: gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, and strong nuclear force – the 4 fundamental forces of Physics. James Clark Maxwell through mathematical equations unified electric and magnetic forces in 1864. About 80 years thereafter, quantum physics consolidated electromagnetism with quantum physics. The interaction of these 4 primary forces, both פרדס and forces of physics, both tend to interact, so to speak, on a subatomic level.

    The kabbala of rabbi Akiva’s פרדס scholarship sh’itta, the רמז\סוד roots search for and seek out the prophet mussar which the Aggadic/Midrash stories contain. To derive from either Aggadita or Midrash the essential “water and minerals” which the שורשים search, requires the acquired, and repeated practiced wisdom of דרוש\פשט. Previously, an earlier metaphor employed to describe this wisdom of Torah scholarship, the reference to the warp and weft of a loom.

    Following the victory of the assimilated school of Talmudic scholarship, the rabbis that embrace with a passion Greek philosophy and logic; after the son of the Rosh and rabbi Karo embraced the assimilationist sh’itta of the Rambam, a violent “Civil War” erupted. A g’lut Civil War does not resemble a revolution or classic nation state Civil War. G’lut Jewry did not command their own armies. What the Rambam civil war did attract, hostile foreign States intervention. It began in Paris with the burning of the Talmud, and then spread to the expulsion of entire Jewish communities in France, Germany, and Spain.

    German authorities took advantage of the anarchy among g’lut Jewry and imposed crushing taxation which destroyed the Jewish economy. The Church followed this economic attack with a decree that forced Jews to live in ghetto imprisonment for something like 300 years. These cruel policies caused a massive population transfer of Jewish stateless refugee populations. Jews in their 100,000s fled from Western Europe unto Eastern Europe; something like the fork in the road leading to the Nazi death camps. A tried and true method of refugee population control. The haven of Eastern Europe proved itself as a mirage of water in the desert.

    Post Karo rabbinic Judaism shifted Torah scholarship away from the Talmud and directed the focus of its energies upon the Shulchan Aruch – the cliff notes of the בית יוסף. Then followed the canard that rabbi Karo based his rulings on halaka, that he followed a majority opinion based upon the Rif, Rosh, Rambam disputes – as if the former two followed the same definition of the term halaka as did the heretic. The realities of ghetto life & poverty, uprooted originality of Torah scholarship. The best Jewish minds failed to grasp or simply forgot that the Rambam’s definition of halaka raped the kabbala of rabbi Akiva, and the framers of the Talmud and Midrashim.


  3. mosckerr says:

    The 8th sugia of our Av Mishna בבא קמא learns from the top of .ו to :ו. The subject of war shares a strong connection with the subject of damages.
    הצד השוה שבהן: לאתויי מאי? אמר אביי לאתויי אבנו סכינו ומשאו שהניחן בראש גגו ונפלו ברוח מצויה והזיקו. ותנן פרק שלישי: נשברה כדו ברה”ר והוחלק אחד במים או שלקה בחרסית חייב. רבי יהודה אומר, במתכוין חייב, באינו מתכוין פטור. ותנן פרק חמישי: הקדר שהכניס קדרותיו לחצר בעל הבית שלא ברשות, ושברה בהמתו של בעל הבית – פטור. ואם הוזקה בהן בעל הקדרות – חייב. ואם הכניס ברשות בעל החצר – חייב וכו’. פרק שני דתנן: התרנגולים מועדין להלך כדרכן ולשבר. היה דליל קשור ברגליו, או שהיה מהדס ומשבר את הכלים – משלם חצי נזק. ותנן פרק עשירי בבא מציעא. הבית והעלייה של שנים שנפלו, אמר בעל העלייה לבעל הבית לבנות, והוא אינו רוצה לבנות, הרי בעל העלייה בונה את הבית ודר בתוכה עד שיתן לו את יציאותיו.

    What signs does HaShem send unto damaged g’lut Israel? Observance of halakot, they serve as the Divine signs – comparable to the plagues which befell Par’o by the hand of HaShem through Moshe. From the times following the Creation, the heart of Man expresses strong inclinations to chisel away at righteous upright behavior; its tuma impatience prefers physical violence over rational diplomacy. Form which lacks substance, to what does it compare? Ritualized observance of halakot – divorced from prophetic mussar. The classic story of Egyptian bondage. Par’o only recognized the plagues and the damages; never once did he take to heart Divine mussar דרך ארץ. This יסודי distinction defines the k’vanna of the opening working blessings of the Shemone Esri:
    אתה חונן לאדם דעת, ומלמד לאנוש בינה: חננו מאתך דעה בינה והשכל: ברוך אתה ה’, חונן הדעת.

    Par’o refused to validate within his heart any prophetic mussar; his Yatzir rejected דרך ארץ as a life walk – also known as t’shuva. Young king Shlomo directly compares to juvenile king Rehav’am; both rejected the advice given by their fathers’ senior most trusted advisors. This common denominator, likewise found in Egypt story when the advisors of Par’o informed him that due to the plagues, the country lay in ruins.

    King Shlomo did not consult with Natan the prophet, he simply decided to build both his personal Court of law, together with his pyramid like Temple. King Shlomo’s court prioritized his personal wisdom, which subordinated unto oblivion the Torah commandment – to established Federal Sanhedrin courts. The last commandment that Moshe accomplished during his lifetime – he established 3 small Sanhedrin Federal courts within the conquered lands, which enlarged the 1st Republic.

    King Shlomo, by contrast, prioritized grand construction projects – they required both taxation and perhaps coerced labor. In conjunction, his disgraceful foreign wives, they drained and estranged the good will of the people. Opposition to the rule of the house of David sprouted into open rebellion during his lifetime. Rehav’am, son of Shlomo, never governed as king before the ten Tribes rebelled against the new king and his promise to increase the intensity of his fathers’ oppressive rule. Avoda zara tends to gloat about its grand and glorious splendor, and its great and brilliant wisdom. The Book of מלכים, its satire mocks the conceit by which avoda zara behavior tends to strut. Comparable to the pompous goose march-step made by Fascist and Communist soldiers in the 20th Century.

    A specific, but general example which explains avoda zara – Xtianity. Church advocates, as a general rule, ardently pursue evangelism. The wicked criminal war crimes committed by church priests, ministers and lay personnel throughout history – pushed off with the excuse: “they were not real Xtians”. Ignorant of brutal war crimes and criminal terrorism, zealant Xtian evangelists resemble – the hardened heart of Par’o. Monotheists preach that only one God lives. Yet these pious ‘true faith’ preachers, never once consider neither the first nor second commandments revealed at Sinai. The tuma Yatzir: blind to the obvious, the opening line of גיטין א:א:לפי שאין בקיאין לשמה teaches a powerful mussar, which alas, Reshonim scholarship failed to grasp.

    The Shoah and the Armenian Genocide: both, examples of “Genocide-in whole”. The Young Turks and Nazi Party, their leaders made unilateral decisions that committed their nation to perpetrate racial genocide. Civil Wars throughout history have witnessed a disproportionate proportion of domestic, racial ethnic genocides. But revolutionary politics does not in and of itself produce racial wars. Attila the Hun: 372-454, the Crusades:1095-1270, Genghis Khan & the Mongol invasions:1220-1650, atrocities in the Congo 1885 – 1908, the Namaqua genocide 1904 – 1908, the Amer-Indians of North America: 1565-1924 — these mass slaughters of human life did not necessarily occur due to political revolutions or Civil Wars.

    The criminal element in all cases of racial war, viewed from the specific lenses of church guilt, these violent lunatics universally assume that their target victims exist as inferior sub-humans. Something on par and similar to the command of General Sheridan which permitted poachers to illegally invade Indian territories, to exterminate the Indians buffalo food source. Comanche Chief Tosawi reputedly told Sheridan in 1869, “Tosawi, good Indian,” to which Sheridan reportedly replied, “The only good Indians I ever saw were dead.” This crude and barbaric response succinctly sums up the motivations of extreme racial prejudice; the basis for the Catholic prayer about the perfidious Jew.

    Had a dream that interpreted the k’vanna of the niggun of Hava Nagila. A powerful mussar walks a narrow line, it does not bounce from subject to subject, rather it clings to a simple idea that arouses the אומץ לב of joy within our hearts, the Will to possess the land. 1948, the declaration of National Independence, Yidden danced the Hava Nagila niggun of the Sadigura Hasidic dynasty that made aliya to Israel on the eve of WW2. Written either by Avraham Zevi Idelsohn or Moshe Nathanson, the former made its first recording in 1922. It’s a simple niggun: ‘Come let us be glad, and rejoice. Arise brethren with a joyful heart’. Traditionally sung together with blowing the shofar. This niggun goes together with Shalom aliechem which Yidden traditionally sing to invite the sanctity of shabbot; prior to the evening first meal, which begins with a blessing pronounced over wine and bread. The blowing of the shofar together with this niggun – so inspires the heart. The k’vanna of Hava Nagila – to enliven the heart; to rise up against the Yatzir Ha’Ra and steel our Will, for the coming hard fight, to possess and conquer the land.

    Wheels within Wheels, the spirit of HaShem contained within the wheels. The vision of the Divine Chariot, from which rabbi Akiva derived his פרדס kabbala sh’itta of Talmudic scholarship. The circular dance of joy, expressed on Chag Sukkot, focuses upon the liberation from g’lut, rather than the bitter cold night of g’lut. It recalls the opening war to capture the walled city of Jericho, the opening battle to conquer the land – the reason HaShem brought Israel out of Egyptian slavery compares to the joy expressed during Chag Sukkot for rainfall in its due season.

    Yidden recall through Hava Nagila the courage of king Hezekia, when he stood toe to toe with Sennacherib, the Assyrian king. Torah victory in war requires HaShem to first judge the Gods whom the Goyim worship. Tehillem teaches: trust not in the power of the horse. Israel conquers and takes possession of the land, not through tuma wisdom and military prowess. Slaves thumbed our noses at Par’o following the P’sach night, when the head and hands of the fallen Egyptian Gods lay shattered upon church and mosque floors.

    Yidden dance forming a circle to arouse the Divine Spirits within us to overcome our dread and fear of giants in the faith of עמנו אל – first HaShem wars against the Gods whom the Goyim worship, only thereafter does Israel rejoice victorious over our enemies – the latter, utterly and totally destroyed. Another memory dance, Yidden – speaking for myself – share the exhilaration when our Siddur regales the vision of destroyed chariots; the obliteration of the army of Par’o, corpses cast upon the shores of the Sea of Suf. Traditionally Yidden stand in shul when the פסוקי דזמר “blessing” comes to
    אז ישיר משה ובני ישראל את השירה הזאת

    Viewed under these contexts inflicting damages upon the enemy gives pleasure which the generations can relive again and again. Justice has two diametrically opposed perspectives. Damages inflicted upon our bnai brit allies hopefully arouses within us the opposite feelings than that wherein we rejoice at the destruction of our hated enemies. When the leaders of a people – of any civilization – rejoice at the destruction of their own people, regardless of any excuse, due to errors made by specific individuals within society, the social fabric of society lays in shreds. The leaders who approve the destruction of the social fabric of their own society, behave like criminal sociopaths. The first obligation and duty of any government – to prevent violent social anarchy, the preamble to Civil War.

    Riots within a society merit the primary leadership of government to prove that the head of State, that he’s on the side of the People. Good leadership treats riots comparable to Covid 19 – to prevent its spread across the nation. Poor leadership argues that local governments should contain “local” riots. Violent riots within a City compare to a terrible natural disaster, the leader of the Central Government should immediately get personally involved. The people of that City require assurance that the Head of State, that he too shares their grief and anguish. Should a protest against the Head of State happen, never must that leader hide behind the clubs and water canons of police brutality. Such a crisis proves the mettle of the Head of State in the eyes of the People. Government leadership stands upon the יסוד of עמנו אל.

    Herein concludes the learning of this the 8th sugia of our Av Mishna בבא קמא.


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